Often new clients approach Gerard Malouf and Partners expert personal injury lawyers, and ask what chance they have in a medical negligence case involving an action against a hospital, nurse, doctor, chiropractor or a member of the medical profession as a result of negligent, unsafe medical treatment/diagnosis.
The same questions are asked when clients approach requesting advice as to the prospects of success in public liability type actions involving falls, trips, slips or accidents due to the negligence of a third party on building sites, public and private residences, shopping malls, supermarkets and similar properties including rental properties.
There are a few points to keep in mind under the law:–
The meaning of reasonable foreseeability has been adapted from law handed down through the court system known as the common law.
A risk is foreseeable if the person knew of it or ought to have known of it. It also has to be not an insignificant risk and a reasonable person would have taken precautions to prevent that risk. The Act then provides a further list of criteria to ascertain whether a reasonable person would have taken precautions. These factors include:
These last provisions cause considerable problems with their interpretation by the court.
The issue of the “burden” of taking precautions is further clarified in the Act where it is confirmed that such precautions also would include the burden of taking precautions to avoid similar risks of harm to the one under consideration. Liability is not affected by:
No duty of care to warn another person of a risk that is “obvious” unless:
Risks can be obvious even though there is a low probability of occurrence. They can also be obvious even though they are not prominent, conspicuous or physically observable.
A person is presumed to be aware of an obvious risk unless they can prove that they were not aware of it. For these purposes, the person does not need to be aware of the precise risk but merely the type or kind of risk – the onus is on the injured person.
‘Inherent risk’ is a risk of something occurring that cannot be avoided by reasonable care and skill.
There is no liability in respect of an inherent risk but it does not excuse defendants who still have a duty to warn people of them.
Recreational Activities – Sections 5J – 5N – Defences to actions for breach of duty
Recreational activity includes any sport (whether or not organised) and any pursuit or activity engaged in for enjoyment, relaxation or leisure. Accordingly, the definition is very broad. A dangerous recreational activity involves a significant risk of physical harm.
A defendant is not negligent as a result of the materialisation of an obvious risk of a dangerous recreational activity engaged in by the plaintiff, whether or not the plaintiff was aware of the risk.
There is no duty of care owed to a person engaging in a recreational activity if that person has been warned of the risk. The warning can be oral or in writing. There are a number of qualifications:
Professional Negligence – Sections 5O – 5P – Covering for example Doctors and engineers
The standard of care for professionals has been changed to the “Bolam” principle – no liability where professional acted in a manner that was widely accepted in Australia by peers’ professional opinion as competent professional practice unless the court determines that this opinion is irrational. This provision will give the courts considerable scope for interpretation. However it is ultimately up to the Court to make this decision.
The maximum weekly rate is capped at 3 times average gross weekly earnings (currently $3,354.90), and applied to:
A GUIDE TO THE CIVIL LIABILITY ACT 2002 (NSW) PAGE 5
Courts must award future loss based on what a Plaintiff establishes would have been his/her “most likely circumstances but for the injury”, and give reasons. A percentage adjustment applies to the possibility of the circumstances proving true.
A 5% discount rate applies for future economic loss damages. Formerly the discount was lower
(3%). The difference can be seen in the example where a 30 year old Plaintiff is awarded $250 per week until retirement at age 65 – on the 3% tables he would be given $284,500, while the 5% tables now allow only $218,900.
Section 14 was amended by the Civil Liability Amendment (Personal Responsibility) Act to apply the 5% rule to ‘future economic loss of any kind’. Despite that change, it may still leave open the question of whether other future damages (treatment expenses, attendant care etc) may be assessed on the 3% tables.
This applies to domestic, nursing and other services that aim to alleviate the consequences of injury. Section 15 regulates the damages awarded under the Griffiths -v- Kerkemeyer approach.